Affixation. Structural types of words. Immediate constituents

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MINISTERY OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION  OF REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN  
 
KAZAKH ABLAI KHAN UNIVERSITY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD LANGUAGES 
 
FACULTY OF PEDOGOGY AND TWO FOREIGN LANGUAGES

English Lexicology 
(Individual work) 

FOR 3rd YEAR  STUDENTS

 

 

                                                          

                  

 

                Done by: Бекибаева Акбота

                                                                              

                                                                                      Group:306

                                  

  
ALMATY,2011

 

 

 

AFFIXATION. 
 
STRUCTURAL TYPES OF WORDS. 
 
IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENTS.  
 
 

Affixation – the addition of an affix – is a basic meaning of forming words in English. 
Words which consist of a root and an affix are called derived words or derivatives and are produced by the process of word-building known as affixation or derivation. The process of affixation consists in coining a new word by adding an affix or several affixes to some root morpheme.  
Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation.

  
               SUFFIXATION  
The main function of suffixes is to form one part of speech from another, the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. 
There are different classifications of suffixes:  

   There are different classifications of suffixes:  
part-of-speech classification. Suffixes which can form different parts of speech are given here:  
      - noun-forming suffixes as –er, -dom, -ism  
      - adjective-forming suffixes as –ize, -ify  
      - adverb-forming suffixes as –ly, -ward  
      - numeral-forming suffixes as –teen, -ty  
semantic classification. Suffixes changing the lexical meaning of the stem can be subdivided into groups, e.g. noun-forming suffixes can denote:  
      - the agent of the action, e.g. –er, -ist, -ent  - taxist, student, experimenter  
      - nationality, e.g. –ian, -ese, -ish  - Russian, Japanese, English  
      - collectivity, e.g. –dom, -e, -ship, -ati  - moviedom, peasantry, readership,  
      - diminuitiveness, e.g. –ie, -let, -ling, -ette    - horsie, booklet, gooseling,  
      - quality, e.g. –ness, -ity    - copelessness, answerability  

lexical-grammatical character of the stem. Suffixes which can be added to certain groups of stems are subdivided into:  
     - suffixes added to verbal stems, such as –er, -ing, -able, -ment, -ation – commuter, suffering, flyable, involvement, computerization  
     - suffixes added to noun stems as –less, -ful, -ism, -ster, -nik, -ish – smogless, roomful, adventurism, pollster, filmnik, childish  
suffixes added to adjective stems, as –en, -ly, -ish, -ness  - weaken, pinkly, longish, clannishness  
origin of suffixes:  
native (Germanic) – er, -ful, -less, -ly  
Romanic – tion, -ment, -able, -eer  
Greek – ist, -ism, -ize  
Russian – nik  
productivity:  
productive – er, -ize, -ly, -ness  
semi-productive – eer, -ette, -ward  
non-productive – ard, -th  

                Prefixation

 

    Prefixation is the formation of words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. Prefixes are more independent than suffixes. Prefixes can be classified according to the nature of words in which they are used: prefixes used in notional words and prefixes used in functional words. The main function of prefixes in English is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech.

Prefixes can be classified according to different principles:  

 

  semantic classification

     prefixes of negative meaning, as in- , non-, un- (invaluable, nonformals, unfree)

     prefixes denoting repetition or reversal actions, as: de-, re-, dis- (decolonize, revegetation, disconnect)

     prefixes denoting time, space, degree relations, as: inter-, hyper-, ex-, pre-,      over- (interplanetary, hypertension, ex-student, preelection, overdrugging)

     origin of prefixes:

      native (Germanic) as: un-, over-, under-

      Romanic as: in-, de-, ex-, re-

      Greek as: sym-, hyper-

  

 

STRUCTURAL TYPES OF WORDS:

 

Morphological

Semantic

Stylistic

The morphological structure of the words. Types of morphemes

 

    • By external structure of the word we mean its morphological structure. A morpheme is also an association of a given meaning with a given sound pattern.
    • The internal structure of the word, or its meaning is nowadays commonly referred to as the word’s semantic structure. This certainly the word’s main aspect.
    •   The morpheme is the smallest meaningful language unit. Morphemes are divided into two large groups: lexical and grammatical morphemes.

Both lexical and grammatical morphemes can be :                                 
                      free and bound. 
Free lexical morphemes are roots of words which express the lexical meaning of the word, they coincide with the stem of simple words.  
Free grammatical morphemes are function words: articles, conjunctions and prepositions.  
Bound lexical morphemes are affixes: prefixes, suffixes and also blocked root morphemes.  
Bound grammatical morphemes are inflexions (endings).  

Thanks for your attention


Краткое описание
Affixation – the addition of an affix – is a basic meaning of forming words in English. Words which consist of a root and an affix are called derived words or derivatives and are produced by the process of word-building known as affixation or derivation. The process of affixation consists in coining a new word by adding an affix or several affixes to some root morpheme. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation.
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